import matplotlib.pylot as plt
fig, axes = plt.subplots(...)
# ndarray size [w, h] in inches
# with default DPI set to 100
size = fig.get_size_inches() * 2 
fig.set_size_inches(size[0], size[1])

The code snippet above set the figure size to be 4 times as large as the default 8 x 6 sq.inches, while keeping DPI to stay the same this will make things appear to be smaller.